The Republic of 1873 came into existence to fill the political
vacuum created by Amadeo's abdication. The Republican Party was neither
strong nor united. When the Republican leaders, on legal scruples, refused to
declare for a
The Republican leaders had allowed attacks on the army that had reduced it to impotence. To conservatives and men of order, the country seemed on the verge of total dissolution. Too late, Emilio Castelar y Ripoll, the last president of the Republic, tried to recapture the loyalty of the army.
In January, 1874, General Manuel Pavia y Rodriguez drove the
Republican deputies from the Cortes, building in hope of creating a
government of order.
General Serrano took over as president of a unitary Republic.
His main goal was to gain victory over the Carlists, now a strong force in
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